Information and communication technology (ICT) has been used in the tourism industry to increase the efficiency of transactions and

create competitive opportunities Although the growth of the online travel business is not noticeable when compared to other countries. but began to play a role and

Familiarize yourself with tourists, such as buying electronic tickets (e-Tickets), making reservations, etc.

This article presents information technology in the tourism industry. Website development of tourism promotion organizations

and private entrepreneurs impact of information technology and human resource development guidelines that are in line with the online travel business


1. Characteristics of travel service products

Travel service products are products that rely on technology and information systems as the basis. Booking, ordering will focus on accuracy.

of information, which leads to the acquisition of desired physical goods and services, such as the purchase of air tickets Travelers begin by searching for information about seats, flights, schedules and prices, and then continue with activities such as booking, / order confirmation. purchase agreement

If there is a change in the transaction, it will make changes to the data and information before reaching the product and service. travel products and services

There are many special features that differ from other physical products such as

Products and services have a very short lifespan. It’s simple and complicated , for example, a hotel that can’t sell a room in a timely manner results in a loss of revenue.

It is an invisible product and service. Can’t check the quality or try it before trading. Consumers feel risks and uncertainties. Therefore, the credibility of information is important for purchasing decisions.

Travel services products consist of basic goods or services that are put together. They differ by geography,

composition and characteristics .

Owners of goods and services cannot deliver goods to customers on their own , for example

by airlines flying to different locations. There can be agents but cannot have offices or distribution channels for many products in every route because

high fixed cost

It is a product that contains information as a component. When customers make purchase decisions, they will receive only abstract products and services. The form of goods and services therefore depends on information presented through various channels such as websites, storytelling, brochures, televisions, etc. The imperfections of the information market are one of the reasons why the value chain of the tourism market is required. There are many departments, organizations and businesses involved.

Tourism Management Organization (DMO) is the agency of the country that facilitates

convenience to consumers and suppliers of goods and services in accessing information and build confidence in the quality of information

A tour operator (Tour Operator) collects offers and services from the owner of the goods and services. is the main channel

and help reduce the cost of accessing information to consumers as well as reduce the cost of marketing information for the product owner or supplier

Travel agents are traditional intermediaries and perform a variety of functions, including information

brokers, passing information from owners to consumers. As a consultant to customers to provide assistance with products. tourist attraction

Acting as an intermediary and distributing travel services products to final consumers Help reduce uncertainty for consumers. Reduce service gaps

and reduce marketing information costs for product owners and travel management companies

A supplier or owner is a business unit that owns travel goods or services, such as airlines, transport companies, accommodation, car rentals, boats, restaurants, who provide services or are directly related to tourists, travelers.

Global Distribution Systems (GDS) are used to manage current inventory prices such as Amadeus, Galileo, Worldspan and SABER.

customers, tourists It is the most important element of the value chain. Service owners try to access customer data to study history. Develop knowledge of tastes, preferences, habits and buying behaviors The information obtained leads to business opportunities.

2. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Tourism Industry The tourism industry has introduced information technology.

and communication (ICT) as a tool in every element of the industry. Since the introduction of the reservation system by computer

(Computerized Reservations Systems or CRS) to use with airlines. and transformed into a global

distribution system (Global Distribution System: GDS) when the distribution system was developed via the Internet, enabling operators and customers in the industry

They have gained more benefits such as flexible and convenient transactions. Reach more customers low distribution costs

Easy to identify and target customers, can distribute products all over the world. and can use the mixed media to promote and

public relations However, internet transactions are flawed in the lack of interpersonal interaction in between.

Transactions or lack of incentives for continued sales of goods and services, the current developed countries will meet the demand.

Consumers with information and communication technology (ICT) through the main elements of tourism are as follows: ICT has been involved in various forms of transportation such as airlines, buses, taxis, equipment must be installed.

good communication Install a radio communication system, GPS system, and other assistive devices in order to provide customers with confidence in safety.

Airlines must be equipped with tools that provide a variety of information, such as climate. height and information systems used for communication

with other airlines and aircraft control stations Use of information technology for in-flight entertainment such as gaming,



Accommodation Tourists use information technology to access accommodation. Searching for accommodation sources at information destinations

That has been used to decide the price, number of days off. Searching can be done from home or work, saving costs.

Travel and contact time with travel agents, travelers can send information back to business or family during the trip.

It can be used for entertainment such as video, television, games, or as a substitute for a business trip such as a teleconference. In addition, information technology is used to manage accommodation such as computerized reservation system (CRS), billing system, receipt system, security system. modern telephone service In-room entertainment and internet access

tourist attraction It is necessary to communicate or inform tourists about the type of attraction, location, how to get there, the owner of the attraction must disseminate information through video, Internet, website, television advertising and brochures.

facilities At present, technology and information systems must be procured to increase efficiency. and facilitate

for tourists, such as issuing visas, passing through customs service booking system bag conveying system etc. It can be concluded that ICT

plays a role in the tourism industry as follows:

ICT creates opportunities to expand and accelerate the growth of the tourism industry

ICT is a tool to reduce costs in reaching target customers

ICT is a tool for collecting and distributing information. ICT knowledge

facilitates networking among stakeholders in the tourism industry.

ICT improves operational and management efficiency in the tourism industry.

ICT as a training tool Educate and build capacity for personnel in the tourism industry.

ICT has an effect on reducing and increasing employment.

Distribution of travel products and services via the Internet and computers.

Difficulty finding information to meet consumer needs And matching the exact requirements between service providers

and consumers, tourism businesses need to find tools to facilitate transactions, tools for managing distribution systems.

has been developed continuously All the time, entrepreneurs in the tourism industry need tools to help distribute.

in order to be able to meet the needs of consumers in a timely manner Distribution of tourism through the Internet and computers.

can be divided into 3 types

The Global Distribution Systems ( GDSs ) and

The Computer Reservation Systems ( CRSs) serve as intermediaries in the supply chain for the distribution of travel products

. use the phone is a service booking system Distributing and providing information services through computers which

Support the sale of seats on the airlines. and related products such as hotels and car rentals to sales departments all over the world as a link between the seller and

System users, including Travel agents The main GDS systems are Amadeus, Galileo, SABRE, and World Span.

The main system of the tourism industry and its importance today, hotels or airlines that are not connected to the GDS system will lose a lot of revenue

from the tourism business.

The Internet and ICT are tools that help tourism industry stakeholders access the tourism market to provide and receive services

. It is a tool that competes with the GDS system and causes travel intermediaries to reshape their business models because

The Internet allows consumers to cut off intermediaries. (Disintermediation) or change the use of intermediaries. (Reintermediation) from

traditional travel agents as agents in the online system.

Airlines is also a business unit that is a leader in developing new technologies to reduce distribution costs and create efficiency.

such as the use of electronic tickets (e-Tickets), the use of automatic check-in systems

3. Online Travel Online travel is the most successful e-commerce. Travel service booking

Online accounts for 25% of all travel bookings.

3. Travel business website The tourism industry is a very competitive industry when organizations, agencies,

using the Internet as a distribution channel public relations Competitiveness in building the integrity of information presentations

And designing the website to have a beautiful appearance (Appearance) is important to bring to sales. because of tourism products

It is a product that relies on information as the main component apart from the physical product and service. Comparison of the appearance

of the website (Appearance) can be divided into many dimensions such as beauty and completeness of information content. web developer

Must pay attention to the properties of information. Knowledge of techniques such as information access, review, security

Personnel in the organization must have discipline and care about information such as keeping information up-to-date, current, accurate and

complete. At the same time, it takes someone with knowledge of graphics to make a website look attractive.

But it is accessible and easy to use.

Tourists need different travel information at different times of their travels. tourists search for information

before traveling to help you decide or plan your trip when arriving at the destination need information to solve problems found in

during the trip or search for a place what attracts attention After a trip, travelers want to share their experiences, provide

feedback, suggestions and complaints, so a successful website design is about meeting expectations.

and customer needs Design starts with identifying needs. expectations and problems After that, design a website.

to meet the needs expectation or problem solving The key design criterion is navigation.

Consistency, results, visualization and quality assurance As well as checking the properties of a good website. Features of a good website

include the ability to search. speed of access Calling a website or Download is a website that can be modified

(Dynamic) information can be adapted to the needs. interesting and enough Various technologies are used, sound, animation,

video and interactive maps are used to make the website attractive and well-known. Well-designed and presented, the

service can be booked immediately. There is maintenance, care and updating of information. There are connections to other websites. and have made advertisements public relations

both online and offlineCreating a website should be grouped with information to suit tourists according to market opportunities.

Marketing niche groups such as singles market, teenagers, vacation after graduation career change retirement period vacation

Including the presentation of information for the audience, such as information for general tourists, business customers, mass media

and tourism organizations. Currently, tourism trends in the Asia-Pacific region have changed from the original. such as focusing

on activities and travel experiences development of low-cost airlines Transformation of Travel Agents

to Travel Consultants The continued growth of online transactions. Tourism that adapts to needs

(Customized Tours) of each customer attaches great importance to communication and accuracy of information

(UNWTO OMT IOHBTO, 2006). Therefore, the format of travel products and services offered on the website must be consistent with their requirements.

consumer behavior and adjust to keep up with the changes that occur

3.1 Main tourism websites of different countries From a comparative study of 32 travel websites

, selected from countries where international tourists are most popular. and countries ranked according to the tourism competitiveness index

Found that each website has a similar function or main menu on the home page. Because it is the main service or information that tourists generally want.

but differ in details and completeness of information including the image, beauty, function or main menu that must appear on the first page

of the website

3.2 Singapore and Thailand websites

The study of the Singapore and Thailand websites aimed to compare the differences between the two websites.

to be used as a guideline for improving the tourism website of Thailand

From the comparison of the main websites of tourism in Singapore and Thailand, it is found that they are similar in beauty, but there are two quite obvious differences: completeness, completeness of information. Information and Service and linking from the main website to the relevant website in Singapore has a better way of presenting it. There are also more interesting points as follows – The layout of the main content of the Singapore website meets the needs of tourists and is easier to understand than the Thailand website – The Singapore website puts all the travel-related information on the main page. But Thai websites must combine information from many websites to get complete information – The content layout of the Tourism Authority of Thailand website lacks a holistic analysis of the needs of tourists. It is the combination of information for each province. Although it provides details, it may not be suitable for tourists who do not know Thailand well enough to search for information by provinces, which are sub-destinations. Linking the website of Singapore is better than Thailand because it will open sales for other products. related to tourism (Cross Selling), such as tourism for health Educational tourism, etc. – Singapore’s website offers information in a storytelling manner to better capture the attention of tourists, such as 20 unique activities to do in Singapore, the story of The Merlion, the symbol of Singapore. Food and attractions categorized according to interests. health tourism Educational tourism, etc. – Singapore’s website offers information in a storytelling manner to better capture the attention of tourists, such as 20 unique activities to do in Singapore, the story of The Merlion, the symbol of Singapore. Food and attractions categorized according to interests. health tourism Educational tourism, etc. – Singapore’s website offers information in a storytelling manner to better capture the attention of tourists, such as 20 unique activities to do in Singapore, the story of The Merlion, the symbol of Singapore. Food and attractions categorized according to interests.

Phuket E-Magazine - Page 12 of 43 - \u0e40\u0e27\u0e47\u0e1a\u0e02\u0e49\u0e2d\u0e21\u0e39\u0e25\u0e02\u0e48\u0e32\u0e27\u0e2a\u0e32\u0e23\u0e14\u0e49\u0e32\u0e19\u0e01\u0e32\u0e23\u0e17\u0e48\u0e2d\u0e07\u0e40\u0e17\u0e35\u0e48\u0e22\u0e27 \u0e08\u0e31\u0e07\u0e2b\u0e27\u0e31\u0e14\u0e20\u0e39\u0e40\u0e01\u0e47\u0e153.3 Thai private tourism websites

A study of the websites of private companies doing tourism business. This is a comparative study of data from 79 websites

to analyze their functions. Providing services and information After that, they were grouped into groups to find relationships

The Covid outbreak is set zero in the Thai tourism sector. How long this recovery will be sustained and how much volatility can be accommodated depends on the choice of pathway to get out of this crisis.

Thai shouldReposition a new tourism sector under 2 principles, namely (1) “Value over volume” approach and (2) Diversification approach, starting from building on activities that Thailand has the potential to compete in the past. Along with creating new activities that are expected to increase demand

In the future , the tourism sector should focus on expanding the group./Frequency of both Thai and foreign tourists in the region to be more diversified in 3 groups: health tourism Tourism that can experience the life of local people and work-related tourism to generate stable income and more balanced distribution

An important helper to help change is the unity of government agencies and policy driving mechanisms. Infrastructure for both transportation and tourism platforms and measures to support business adaptation, such as funding, regulatory adjustments, and up-skilled workers.

\u0e42\u0e04\u0e27\u0e34\u0e14-19 \u0e01\u0e31\u0e1a\u0e01\u0e32\u0e23\u0e17\u0e48\u0e2d\u0e07\u0e40\u0e17\u0e35\u0e48\u0e22\u0e27\u0e20\u0e39\u0e40\u0e01\u0e47\u0e15 \u0e1c\u0e48\u0e32\u0e19\u0e21\u0e38\u0e21\u0e21\u0e2d\u0e07 \u0e1c\u0e39\u0e49\u0e27\u0e48\u0e32\u0e01\u0e32\u0e23\u0e01\u0e32\u0e23\u0e17\u0e48\u0e2d\u0e07\u0e40\u0e17\u0e35\u0e48\u0e22\u0e27\u0e41\u0e2b\u0e48\u0e07\u0e1b\u0e23\u0e30\u0e40\u0e17\u0e28\u0e44\u0e17\u0e22 - Phuket E-Magazine​Since the beginning of last year, the Thai tourism sector has been severely affected by COVID-19. by analysts This year, Thailand may have less than 500,000 foreign tourists (from nearly 40 million in 2019.that generates approximately2 trillion baht or 11% of GDP) looking forward The COVID outbreak will not only have a short-term impact. but will change the behavior of tourists around the world Increased emphasis on health and hygiene It’s a safe trip avoiding the crowds. travel closer prefer to travel with niche travel more than the traditional mass travel and focus on using technology to increase comfort throughout the journey The main problem of the country is when the tourism sector will recover. We still have to take this opportunity. Review and restructure the tourism sector in order to return to growth and drive the Thai economy sustainably in the post-Covid world.

Interesting issues from the seminar “Fah Lang Fon, a New Dimension for Thai Tourism” 1 jointly held by the Bank of Thailand and Visa International (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in June 2021, has presented the article Revitalizing Thailand’s tourism sector: In search of enablers for future sustainability point to the problem that traditional tourism models in Thailand could increase the vulnerability and volatility of the tourism sector in the post-COVID world. both from generating income through excessive dependence on the number of foreign tourists while tourists spend less There is also a problem of concentration in both the nationality of tourists. Old tourist attractions and travel periods, the article presents a new tourism model underTwo principles are (1) “Value over volume” approach and (2) Diversification approach to increase the spending value of foreign tourists. If it can be increased from 48,000 baht per person to 60,000 baht, it will allow Thailand to receive the same income but with only 32 million tourists, / as well as to increase the balance in the tourism sector in various dimensions, such as distribution of sources of income. to rely on a more diverse tourist market to stabilize tourism income and help mitigate future risks as well as increase the distribution of income through supporting tourism in secondary cities more And most importantly, tourism must not create as much environmental costs as in the past.

In addition, the tourism sector restructuring to this new model It will create more investments in the tourism sector, such as digital investments to support the Contactless trend and tourism platforms. improvement of tourist attractions and investment in the transportation system From the present, Thailand invests only 13% of tourism revenue. Compared with other competitor countries such as the Philippines and Malaysia, which accounted for 21% and 27% respectively, and will result in the allocation of production resources. Both capital goods, machinery and labor go where they will get the best results and will contribute to increasing productivity. In this regard, the tourism sector has been transformed to be more dependent on capital factors. With the tourism sector reliant on natural resources and large labourers (more than 7 million people, accounting for 20% of total employment), during the transition some workers needed to adapt their skills to new trends. While surplus workers need to be cared for, they can transition to other service sectors that may become more popular in the future, such as Hospitality and wellness related services.

Thailand should reposition the tourism sector by focusing on tourism groups that are expected to have increased demand This starts by expanding on activities that Thailand has the potential to compete in the past (Old legacy), such as nature or culture. along with creating new activities such as health tourism Tourism to experience local life that adds value and incentives. along with the expansion of the group / frequency of tourism of Both Thai and foreign tourists in the region (Regional travelers) such as Japan, Taiwan, due to the trend of behavioral changes in tourists choosing to travel more near distances, especially tourists who prefer to travel on their own.(Free Independent Travelers: FIT) or Customized tour group , which will spend about 51,000 baht per trip per person, higher than the tour group at about 39,000 baht and focusing on supporting 3 main groups of tourists:

(1) Medical & wellness tourism group that will be more popular which is a group that has a cost per trip up to about 80,000-120,000 baht and create added value to the Thai economy more than 80% of the income received

(2) Green & community-based tourism group , which will stimulate tourism in secondary cities and reduce over-tourism. Moreover, income from tourists in this group also creates added value to the economy about 60-80% of the income received. as well

(3) Business groups such as investors and professional staffs who come to work in Thailand Or come to organize seminars in Thailand, including work from anywhere groups and followers, which are potential groups that spend high because they tend to stay for a long time (Expenses per trip for long-stay groups, accommodation for more than 14 days ≈ 75,000 baht) and tend to increase in accordance with the policy of attracting foreign investment and personnel to work in Thailand.

This is because the Thai tourism sector has various related businesses. The key point in driving the restructuring is centralized and interconnected policies. This requires cooperation from all parties in the ecosystem.

• The labor sector must increase skills or adjust their aptitudes in accordance with new trends. Meanwhile, the business sector has to speed up adjustments to places, routes, and tourism activities, including accommodation, to increase the attractiveness of secondary cities and the low season. To attract a variety of tourists and spend higher

• The government sector has clearly defined development directions, goals and plans. This is set out in the 13th National Economic and Social Development Plan and to achieve practical results. The government must (1) have a united driving agency. so that policies in all dimensions are consistent and can be implemented in a timely manner; (2) create a mechanism for driving a clear strategic plan Incentive policies, such as visitation or other prices and quotas, may be considered to restructure the tourism sector to meet more spatial and time-bound goals, as many countries such as the United States set. Entry to national parks during the peak season is twice as high as normal, and the Philippines imposes a quota of 6,405 daily visitors to Boracay island (3).both the transportation system to connect the secondary cities and use technology to make tourism more Contactless and Seamless, especially upgrading the tourism platform to serve as a marketing channel to attract target tourists with a Track & Trace system to build confidence for tourists. including being a comprehensive and fast tourism sector database for the benefit of both business and policy makers; and (4) supporting the adjustment of business and labor sectors in accordance with new tourism trends. or if businesses or workers need to leave the tourism sector There must be a mechanism to facilitate adaptation to a sector that can continue to expand. to take care not to waste too many resources both financial supportdifferent rules adjustmentand Up-skilled Reskilled Labor, etc.

• People play an important role in maintaining tourist attractions to be complete and attractive. and help create a good tourism atmosphere for visitors

The Covid outbreak is set zero in the Thai tourism sector. How long will the recovery be sustained in the next phase? It depends on choosing the path to get out of this crisis. The new path, although not easy, is necessary. so that the Thai tourism sector can return to grow in the sky after the rain that is brighter than in the past

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